“Les Trois Grandes Dames” of Impressionism – Part 3 – Berthe Morisot

"Berthe Morisot Painting" (1865) by Edma Morisot (source)

“Berthe Morisot Painting” (1865) by her sister Edma Morisot (source)

The Salon de Paris was the official annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Sponsored by the government (until 1881) and judged by academicians, it was the place to be recognized as an artist in France of the 19th century. As time went on the juries became more conservative, specifically they were not receptive to the artists who came to be called Impressionists. So these artists broke away and held their own exhibitions beginning in 1874. Three of the women, dubbed “les trois grandes dames” of Impressionism by Gustave Geffroy, were among these artists: Mary Cassatt, Marie Bracquemond, and Berthe Morisot.

Unlike Cassatt and Bracquemond, Berthe Morisot’s artistic aspirations were supported by her family. Her parents were even warned by Joseph Guichard, the artist who gave Berthe and her sisters lessons, “Given your daughters’ natural gifts, it will not be petty drawing-room talents that my instruction will achieve; they will become painters.” Of the three daughters two of them did just that, Edma and Berthe. Although Edma gave up painting after her marriage to a naval officer, Berthe went on to an illustrious career. Edma always supported Berthe’s decision to continue painting, even after her marriage, and they remained close throughout their lives.

Born on January 14, 1841, Berthe was the third child of an affluent bourgeois family. After the daughter’s initial instruction, and in spite of Guichard’s warning, Edma and Berthe followed in the footsteps of other artists and registered as copyists at the Louvre where they met and became friends with other artists. Both are thought to have studied under Camille Carot, who encouraged them to begin painting outdoors (plein air) and under Achile Oudinot, both painters of the Barbizon School. Berthe also briefly studied sculpture as well, but none of her pieces are known to survive.

"The Mother and Sister of the Artist" (1869/70) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“The Mother and Sister of the Artist” (1869/70) by Berthe Morisot (source)

Berthe’s first acceptance in the Salon was in 1864 when she was 23 years old. Edma was also accepted and they both exhibited together until Edma married in 1868. Berthe continued to exhibit regularly at the Salon until 1873, and beginning in 1874 exhibited with the Impressionists. By 1872, her career was firmly established when a private dealer, Druand-Ruel, purchased 22 of her paintings.

"The Cradle" (1872) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“The Cradle” (1872) by Berthe Morisot (source)

Edma wasn’t the only one to fall in love in the 1860s. At some point (sources vary) the sisters became acquainted with Édouard Manet. The families became close with Manet and Morisot influencing each others painting over time. Through Édouard, Berthe met his brother Eugène Manet. They married in 1874 and had one daughter, Julie, born in 1878.

"Eugène Manet à l'Ile de Wight" (1875) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“Eugène Manet à l’Ile de Wight” (1875) by Berthe Morisot (source)

Berthe worked in oil, watercolor and pastel and tended to paint domestic life and portraits. She frequently used family and friends as models, including her daughter Julie. Her selection of subjects was somewhat hampered by her gender and social status, although she did eventually paint nudes later in her career. But what was appreciated by many and in fact made her work stand out, were her feminine subjects and style.

"Child Among the Hollyhocks" (1881) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“Child Among the Hollyhocks” (1881) by Berthe Morisot (source)

Eugène Manet died in 1892 and Berthe’s own health wasn’t good. She followed him in death on March 2, 1895. Julie was just 15 years old and was left in the care of Stéphane Mallarmé, the French poet and critic, and good family friend.

"Reading" (1873) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“Reading” (1873) by Berthe Morisot (source)

“Only one woman created a style, and that woman is Madame Morisot. Her pictures are the only pictures painted by a woman that could not be destroyed without creating a blank, a hiatus in the history of art.” ~ George Moore

Resources

Berthe Morisot“, The Famous Artists
Edma and Berthe“, Women in the Act of Painting

“Les Trois Grandes Dames” of Impressionism – Part 2 – Marie Bracquemond

Marie Bracquemond (source)

Marie Bracquemond (source)

I know little about art with the exception of a passing acquaintance with the Impressionists from taking French in school. Sadly, as in many other areas of my education, it was the male Impressionists we learned about not the women. Although left out of our books, they weren’t absent and today we look at Marie Bracquemond who, with Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morisot, has been called one of “les trois grandes dames” of Impressionism.

Marie Anne Caroline Quivoron was born on December 1, 1840 near Brest in northwestern France. Her father died shortly after her birth and her mother’s second marriage resulted in frequent moves before they finally settled in Étampes, south of Paris. As a girl, she first painted a birthday present for her mother using pigment from crushed flowers. A family friend, impressed by her efforts, gave her a box of watercolors.

Beginning instruction in her teens under M. Wasser, she was accomplished enough by 1857 to have a painting accepted by the Paris Salon. This led to an introduction to Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and work in his studio. Her exposure there led to commissions for original work as well as making important copies in the Louvre.

"Woman with an Umbrella", 1880, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

“Woman with an Umbrella”, 1880, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

She didn’t stay in Ingres’s studio for long, considering him a “despot” with “low esteem of women artists.” In a letter in 1860, she said of M. Ingres: “He wished to impose limits. He would assign to them [women] only the painting of flowers, of fruits, of still lifes, portraits and genre scenes. . . . I wish to work at painting, not to paint some flowers, but to express those feelings that art inspires in me.”

It was in the Louvre that Marie met Félix Bracquemond. Félix was a prolific printmaker, painter and ceramist. He was prominent in both literary and artistic circles and friends with many Impressionists, although he didn’t share their preference for color over line or working outside the studio. He was also loud, arrogant, and some would say obnoxious. Marie was always properly chaperoned by her mother and sister, Louise, and Félix asked a friend to arrange an introduction.

For two years Marie and Félix were inseparable in the Louvre. They analyzed masterpieces and surely discovered their differing tastes, but Marie found herself submitting to his dominant personality. Their engagement lasted for two years, but finally they married in 1869 in spite of her mother’s opposition. Their only son, Pierre, was born the following year. Always in delicate health, Marie’s health began to decline after the birth.

Their relationship was tempestuous. Félix had no prejudice against women as artists, but according to Pierre, no one, male or female, could change his staunchly held opinions. However, he did teach Marie quite a lot. He introduced her to many other artists as well as new media. Working together at the Haviland studio in Auteuil, Marie designed dinner service plates and created faience tile panels and became very accomplished.

"On the Terrace at Sèvres", 1880, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

“On the Terrace at Sèvres”, 1880, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

In the late 1870s, Marie’s style began to change under the mentorship of Monet and Renoir.  This was more than Félix could tolerate. According to Pierre, he only grudgingly allowed her to exhibit a few of her pieces, three in a private gallery in rue Lafitte and five at the Dudley Gallery in London in 1881. A further influence on Marie was Gauguin, who came to stay with the Bracquemonds in 1886 at Félix’s invitation.

Félix became increasingly critical of Marie’s work and called her ambitions “incurable vanity.” She also tired easily trying to work in addition to keeping up her household responsibilities, which she prioritized. Marie always attended Sunday mass, which gave Félix one more thing to criticize.

Weekly gatherings on Sunday at the Bracquemond home frequently ended in arguments. According to Gustave Geffroy, Félix was “both augumentative and authoritarian. He adored debate . . . but his weakness was that he always wanted to be too right, and if anyone disagreed with him ever so little it would end with growing rage.”

"Under the Lamp", 1887, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

“Under the Lamp”, 1887, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

Marie finally gave up the struggle, painting only a few private works after 1890. One of her last paintings was The Artist’s Son and Sister in the Garden at Sèvres. Most of what we know about Marie’s life comes from an unpublished memoir written by Pierre, La Vie de Félix et Marie Bracquemond. In it he fails to describe Marie’s last years. Evidently, Félix never stopped railing against the Impressionists, but Marie never stopped loving them.

Marie Bracquemond died in Paris on January 17, 1916. Three years after her death, 156 of her works were assembled for a show at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery in Paris. Only four of those works are now on public display.

"The Artist’s Son and Sister in the Garden at Sevres", 1890, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

“The Artist’s Son and Sister in the Garden at Sèvres”, 1890, by Marie Bracquemond (source)

Resources

Jean-Paul Bouillon and Elizabeth Kane, “Marie Bracquemond“, Woman’s Art Journal Vol. 5, No. 2 (Autumn, 1984 – Winter, 1985), pp. 21-27

 

“Les Trois Grandes Dames” of Impressionism – Part 1 – Mary Cassatt

Mary Cassatt, self-portrait c. 1878 (source)

Mary Cassatt, self-portrait c. 1878 (source)

In 1894 in La Vie artistique, Gustave Geffroy, the art critic, listed three women who had contributed significantly to the history of impressionism: Mary Cassatt, Marie Bracquemond, and Berthe Morisot. Bracquemond and Morisot were both French, and although Cassatt was an American, she spent much of her professional life in France eventually making it her permanent home.

Mary Cassatt was born in Pennsylvania to an upper middle-class family on May 22, 1844. Her parents were well-educated and viewed travel as an essential part of education. During her childhood, she spent several years in Europe, visiting all the great cities and learning to speak French and German.

Although her parents were against the idea of making a living through painting, Cassatt began studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. She stayed for four years, during the American Civil War, but became dissatisfied with the instruction and treatment of women students, so she also studied the old masters on her own.

Finally, in 1865, Mary’s mother agreed to go with her to Paris for the purpose of studying. The École des Beaux-Arts didn’t accept women, but Jean-Léon Gérôme agreed to teach her privately. She also spent time copying paintings in the Louvre, where she was able to socialize with other artists. In 1868, Cassatt and Elizabeth Jane Gardner were the first two American women to have work accepted by the Paris Salon.

Two Women Throwing Flowers, 1872 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Two Women Throwing Flowers, 1872 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Home again in 1870, Cassatt became very frustrated. Her father refused to pay for her art supplies and she was unable to sell paintings that she placed in a New York gallery. She briefly considered giving up painting and looking for another way to make an independent living when she was commissioned by the Archbishop of Pittsburgh to paint copies of two of Correggio’s paintings in Italy. Returning to Europe, and her reception there, was very encouraging, especially after her painting Two Women Throwing Flowers During Carnival was exhibited and purchased at the Paris Salon.

A Woman in Black at the Opera c. 1878 by Mary Cassatt (source)

A Woman in Black at the Opera c. 1878 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Cassatt’s relationship with the jury of the Salon and some of her colleagues became strained, and in 1877, for the first time in seven years both of her entries were rejected. At this point, she was invited by Edgar Degas to exhibit with the Impressionists.

The Boating Party c. 1893 by Mary Cassatt (source)

The Boating Party c. 1893 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Cassatt had always admired Degas and said of his art, “It changed my life. I saw art then as I wanted to see it.” She enthusiastically joined them and it seemed to set her free. She had always worked inside the studio, but now began to carry a sketch book with her when she went out.

Woman with a Pearl Necklace in a Loge, 1879 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Woman with a Pearl Necklace in a Loge, 1879 by Mary Cassatt (source)

The Impressionist exhibit of 1879 was Cassatt’s most successful to date. Her mother, father and sister Lydia came to join her in Paris and she often painted them, including Woman with a Pearl Necklace of her sister Lydia. She enjoyed a good working relationship with Degas, learning to use pastels and etching from him, but by 1886 Cassatt began to move away from Impressionism and began to experiment with varying techniques.

Mother and Child (Reine Lefebre and Margot) c. 1902 (source)

Mother and Child (Reine Lefebre and Margot) c. 1902 (source)

Cassatt focused primarily on genre painting, often depicting bonds between mothers and their children, although many considered her colors too bright and her figures too accurate to be flattering. After 1900, Cassatt focused primarily on mother and child subjects, which is what she is most well-known for among the general public.

Children Playing with a Cat, 1908 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Children Playing with a Cat, 1908 by Mary Cassatt (source)

Cassatt was always more appreciated in Europe than in America, even among her own family members. In 1915, she exhibited 18 works in support of women’s suffrage. Her sister-in-law, Eugenie Carter Cassatt, along with much of Philadelphia society, boycotted the show. Cassatt responded by selling off the work that she had previously designated for her heirs. She died near Paris on June 14, 1926 and was buried in the family vault at Le Mesnil-Théribus, France.

 

Not Quite First Lady – Rachel Jackson

Rachel Jackson c. 1830 by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl (source)

Rachel Jackson c. 1830 by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl (source)

The Presidential campaign of 1828 was brutal. Andrew Jackson felt that the election of 1824 had been stolen from him (he won the popular vote) and John Quincy Adams was defending his position as incumbent. Although it was considered undignified for the candidate to campaign, their supporters pulled out all the stops even attacking the wives. Louisa Catherine Adams was considered by many a foreigner who brought unwelcome influence to Washington, (she was born and raised in England, although her parents were Americans), but the worst criticism was reserved for Rachel Jackson. Called a whore, a bigamist, and an unsophisticated westerner (my goodness she smoked a pipe!), many considered her unqualified to inhabit the White House.

When Rachel Donelson was 12 years old, her family left Virginia to travel to the frontier of Tennessee. The trip was arduous and the situation with the Indians unsettled, but eventually they established themselves as one of the most prominent families in the area. They built a palisade which surrounded the family home and several cabins where boarders lived. This is where Rachel and Andrew met and fell in love. Rachel was a beautiful young woman and Andrew was tall and handsome with an instinct to protect women. Rachel may have seemed like she needed protecting – from her husband, her first husband.

A few years earlier, when the situation with the Indians was very dangerous, the family briefly moved to Kentucky. There Rachel met and married Lewis Robards. The Donelsons and Robards were of similar social standing and circumstances. Lewis was from a large family who welcomed and liked Rachel. It seemed like a good match. And it was for a while, but the vivacious and friendly nature of Rachel that attracted Lewis became a problem. She was raised with seven brothers and quite innocently enjoyed the company of men, but Lewis was of a jealous nature. By 1788, the situation had become unbearable and Rachel’s brother came to get her, bringing her home to her family in Tennessee. It is unsure whether Rachel intended the move to be permanent or not, but later in the year Lewis followed her to Nashville and moved in with her and her family.

Andrew Jackson c. 1824 by Thomas Sully (source)

Andrew Jackson c. 1824 by Thomas Sully (source)

It was during this time that Andrew Jackson moved to Nashville. Rachel and Andrew were attracted to each other, but there is no evidence that their relationship was inappropriate. However, Lewis couldn’t accept this; he forbid her to talk to Jackson and interrogated her about the few interactions they had. Finally, during the summer of 1789, Lewis made the mistake of telling other men that Jackson was too intimate with his wife. Lewis was not well-liked, but Jackson and the Donelson family were. Word got back to Jackson and he confronted Lewis and threatened to cut off his ears.

Rather than challenge Jackson to a duel, which he undoubtedly would have accepted, Lewis had a warrant issued against him. While traveling to see the magistrate, under armed guard, the looks that Jackson gave Lewis terrified him so much that he ran off. Of course the fact that the guards allowed Jackson to carry a knife and to chase after Lewis, may have had something to do with the fact that Lewis didn’t show up at the magistrate’s office. Without a complainant, the charges were dismissed. This was the last straw for Lewis, he left Tennessee and returned to Kentucky swearing to have nothing more to do with Rachel and her family.

By this time, Rachel and Andrew knew that they were in love and wanted to marry. While attitudes toward marriage and divorce were more relaxed in the west, including self-marriage and self-divorce determined by the families rather than a bureaucrat from across the mountains, the Donelsons liked to abide by the legal niceties when possible. This was particularly important with regard to property rights. Rachel’s father had died in 1885 and although his will had yet to be settled, anything that came to Rachel would legally belong to Lewis Robards.

Women had no legal right to divorce (at least none that would be acceptable to a southern judge), so the hope was that Lewis meant what he said and would file. In the meantime, the only option Rachel and Andrew had to live as husband and wife was to elope to an area beyond American Law. The closest place whether Andrew could hope to earn a living was Natchez (now in Mississippi) which was then still Spanish territory.  In the summer of 1789, Andrew began to establish connections there.

Approximate location of Natchez Trace between Nashville, TN and Natchez, MS (source)

Approximate location of Natchez Trace between Nashville, TN and Natchez, MS (source)

That fall, they heard rumors that Lewis was angry and preparing to come get Rachel and force her to return to Kentucky with him. He was within his legal rights to do so and Rachel and Andrew made a decision. In December of 1789, they boarded a flat boat and headed down the river. There is no documentary evidence that they married in Natchez, but there is evidence that they presented themselves as Mr. and Mrs. Jackson. They made connections with family friends and entertained, making no effort to hide who they were. Neither purchased land; presumably they rented with the intent of returning to Nashville when they could.

By July 1790, Lewis had not returned to Nashville and Rachel and Andrew decided to go home. The journey up Natchez Trace with an armed party was uneventful with one exception. One of their traveling companions knew Lewis Robards and later reported to him that Rachel and Andrew were living as husband and wife. This testimony was the tangible evidence he had been waiting for and he made a petition to the Virginia legislature for an action of divorce. This gave Lewis permission to sue Rachel for divorce in Kentucky supreme court. (Kentucky was still part of Virginia at the time.)

There were other requirements that had to be met: notice in the Kentucky Gazette, filing a writ in Kentucky, and taking depositions from witnesses. But, Lewis put off doing these things. Maybe because of anger toward Rachel or because of lingering hopes of receiving her inheritance, nevertheless, the divorce wasn’t finalized until three years later in September of 1793. The charge was adultery, but neither Rachel nor Andrew appeared in court. After all, they weren’t going to fight something they had been hoping for all along.

Rachel and Andrew had been living in Nashville as husband and wife since 1790, so they quietly married (remarried?) on January 17, 1794. They enjoyed their lives together and the events of the previous years receded into memory until the election of 1828.

In spite of the ugliness of the campaign, Jackson won the election by a landslide. Briefly, Rachel considered not going to Washington with Andrew, but they decided that that would be admitting they were wrong, which they didn’t believe. So Rachel prepared to become First Lady of the land. Sadly, it wasn’t to be. On December 22, 1828, Rachel Donelson Jackson died, leaving Andrew a deeply sad and embittered man. He would always blame those who attacked Rachel for her death. Two days later, Rachel was buried in the white satin gown she had planned to wear to the inaugural ball.

The tomb of Rachel and Andrew Jackson (source)

The tomb of Rachel and Andrew Jackson (source)

Resources
A Being So Gentle: The Frontier Love Story of Rachel and Andrew Jackson by Patricia Brady
C-SPAN: First Ladies Influence and Image – Rachel Jackson

Susan LaFlesche Picotte – Pioneering Physician

Susan La Flesche, early 1900s, Nebraska State Historical Society Photograph Collections (source)
Susan La Flesche, early 1900s, Nebraska State Historical Society Photograph Collections  (source)

In 1889, Susan LaFlesche Picotte was the first American Indian woman to receive a medical degree. A number of people helped her achieve this goal, but the primary push came from Picotte’s innate ability and drive. This determination helped her to graduate at the top of her class and then practice in situations where she served as many as 1200 people spread over a large area. She achieved her ultimate dream in 1913, two years before her death, when she opened a hospital on the Omaha Reservation in the Nebraska town of Walthill.

Susan La Flesche was born to Chief Iron Eyes (Joseph La Flesche) and his wife One Woman (Mary Gale) on the Omaha Reservation on June 17, 1865. She was the youngest of eight children, five by Mary Gale and three by Joseph’s second wife, Ta-in-ne. The children worked along side their father on the farm, planting, hoeing, and harvesting crops, tending livestock, butchering and preserving meat, among other tasks. They also attended the reservation school run by missionaries.

Joseph LaFlesche (source)

Chief Iron Eyes, Joseph LaFlesche (source)

The focus of the reservation school was to transform the students into “respectable” citizens of the United States. Basically, the intent was to pull them away from their Indian culture, beliefs and traditions, forcing them to conform to the standards of the white settlers. In spite of this, Joseph encouraged his people, including his children, to work hard to achieve an education. Susan attended the reservation school until the age of 14, but as she continued her education her focus was, and would always be, to help her people and to preserve their culture.

Having progressed as far as she could at the mission school, Susan was sent east to complete her education at the Elizabeth Institute for Young Ladies in New Jersey, where her sister Susette had graduated in 1875. She returned to the reservation at the age of 17 and began a 2 year stint as a teacher at the Quaker Mission School. During this time, she often tended the sick and one of those individuals was Alice Fletcher. Fletcher was an ethnographer who had become acquainted with Susette, Susan’s older sister, when she was traveling on the east coast lecturing with Chief Standing Bear and T.H. Tibbles about the living conditions of the Indians.

Mary Gale LaFlesche (source)

One Woman, Mary Gale LaFlesche (source)

Fletcher worked closely with Susan’s half-brother Frank LaFlesche on a two volume history of the Omaha Nation, but she would also be of help to Susan in her quest to become a doctor. After teaching at the mission school, Susan returned east to attend the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia. She graduated at the top of the class and gave a speech at graduation in 1886. Fletcher was there and was once again impressed with the young woman, so she approached Sarah Thomson Kinney, the president of the Connecticut Indian Association about a scholarship for Susan to attend medical school.

Susan received high recommendations from the Hampton professors, including their resident physician, Martha Waldron, who was a graduate of the Women’s Medical College in Philadelphia.  This is where Susan applied, and once accepted, with a stipend from the Office of Indian Affairs and help from the Connecticut women, she began her official training as a physician. At first, in her letters home, Susan wrote how homesick she was and how much better prepared her classmates were, but the staff and students welcomed her and soon she felt at home. It wasn’t long before she was writing about how much she enjoyed her classes (even dissecting cadavers) and sending them medical advice.

First Female Medical College Building c. 1850 (source)

First Female Medical College Building c. 1850 (source)

Although her studies were challenging, Susan and her classmates took advantage of the culture of the city, going to the theater, opera, museums and lectures. In spite of becoming thoroughly acclimated to city living, her intention was always to return home to help her people. She spent the second summer back on the reservation trying to help fight a measles epidemic, where she encountered another challenge that she would face as a practicing physician. Many in the tribe didn’t trust the white man’s medicine, but attitudes began to change when they saw her take the medicine herself.

On March 14, 1889, Susan again graduated at the top of her class. Her high marks earned her a four month internship at the Women’s Hospital, but by August she was very glad to be back home.

Once Susan returned, she was appointed physician for the agency school, but before long she was taking care of the health of anyone on the reservation. This also included advice on hygiene and cleanliness, but Susan went beyond that. Able to speak the Omaha language and with an understanding of the larger world, she also gave advice on land issues and other legal matters. A typical day meant translating documents, writing letters and reports, taking care of patients in her office, and spending hours visiting her patients in their homes. She rode horseback or drove herself in a buggy, often returning at 10:00 at night and leaving a light in the window so that people could find her.

In addition to serving as the tribe’s physician, Susan was asked to become the medical missionary for the Women’s National Indian Association. She accepted and added the organization of Sunday School, morning and evening Sunday services and Wednesday night prayer meetings to her busy schedule.

In 1894, Susan surprised her friends and family by marrying. Henry Picotte was a handsome, outgoing and well-liked man of the Yankton Sioux. They had two sons, Caryl born in 1895 and Pierre born in 1898. Henry began farming on Susan’s land allotment and in spite of the increased responsibilities of being a wife and mother, Susan continued her work. Their life together wasn’t long. In 1905, Henry died of alcohol related disease. The ready availability of alcohol on the reservation was an issue that was very important to Susan and she took reducing this availability as one of her many causes.

Often Susan had to send seriously ill patients on the train for operations or hospital care. Her dream was to build her own hospital. Finally on January 8, 1913, in Walthill, Nebraska, her dream became a reality when the long awaited facility opened with 17 beds, both wards and private rooms, an operating room and all modern conveniences. After her death it was named the “Dr. Susan LaFlesche Picotte Memorial Hospital” and served the Omaha people until after World War II. It now houses a museum and community center.

Dr. Susan FaFlesche Picotte Memorial Hospital (source)

Dr. Susan FaFlesche Picotte Memorial Hospital (source)

Throughout Susan’s adult life, she suffered from a degenerative disease which she called neurasthenia. It caused severe pain of her ears, head, and neck. On several occasions she collapsed and spent weeks recovering. Finally, after two surgeries to attempt to remove diseased bone, Susan succumbed to her illness on September 18, 1915.

Susan LaFlesche Picotte was a well-respected physician with both Indian and white patients. She championed legislation and spoke to Congress on behalf of the Omaha and all Native Americans. She organized the Thurston County Medical Society, chaired the health committee of the Nebraska Federation of Women’s Clubs, and was a member of the Nebraska State Medical Society. She made tremendous contributions in the area of public health as well, but she was probably most remembered for her great love and care for her people. After her death Reverend D. E. Jenkins of the Presbyterian Mission board had this to say:

“Dr. Picotte gave herself unselfishly, passionately and often with what amounted to reckless disregard of herself to the task of relieving, helping and uplifting the Omaha Indians. By day and by night she dreamed dreams and saw visions of larger and better things yet to come for her beloved people.”

Sources

The Doctor Wore Petticoats: Women Physicians of the Old West by Chris Enss
Walking in Two Worlds: Mixed-blood Indian Women Seeking Their Path by Nancy M Peterson
U.S. National Library of Medicine: Susan La Flesche Picotte (1865-1915)
Changing the Face of Medicine: Dr. Susan La Flesch Picotte
LaFlesche Family Papers: Biographical Note

 

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...