Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist – A Book Review

Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, FeministUntil recently, my knowledge of Nellie Bly was limited to her 10 days in a mental institution and her race around the world, both stunts she performed for the sake of newspaper articles. Then I read a blurb which listed some of her other accomplishments. Of course in typical fashion, I can’t remember where that was, but it prompted me to read a biography to learn more about her.

Brooke Kroeger’s book, Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist, is well-written, very well-researched, and full of details, in some cases more than I wanted. Bly seems full of contradictions, especially when it comes to calling her a feminist, but her articles are full of information about her and her feelings about the person or topic she is writing about. Kroeger makes good use of quotes to give us a feel for these contradictions.

Bly was born Elizabeth Jane Cochran and called “Pinky” by her family and friends. (The “e” was added to the last name later.) Her father, an immigrant from Ireland, worked his way up from mill worker to owner and left the family reasonably well-off when he died. But a disastrous second marriage by her mother, Mary Jane, and mismanagement of the children’s trust funds left Elizabeth with a distrust of some men, and a need to make her own way.

She didn’t, however, set out to become a reporter. In response to a column in the Pittsburgh Dispatch, Elizabeth wrote a letter to the editor signed “Lonely Orphan Girl.” The editor then wrote an ad asking the author to identify herself; she did and her career began. He chose the name Nellie Bly as a pseudonym, commonly used by women at the time, and judiciously edited her early articles. Throughout her twenties, Nellie Bly wrote for women’s pages (although she hated it) and did “stunt” journalism, such as the “around the world” articles (which she loved).

Journalism was something that Nellie always returned to. By the time she was 30, she had such name recognition that she could always find work. But her life took a different turn when at the age of 31, she married 73 year old millionaire Robert Seaman. The relationship is intriguing and Kroeger does a good job describing the interaction between the two. Through Seaman, Bly became a businesswoman, eventually becoming the President of his business, the Iron Clad Manufacturing Company. She also became an inventor and was issued a number of patents related to the business.

There were three major elements which consumed the rest of Bly’s life after Robert’s death: litigation regarding the company, her coverage of World War I from Austria, and her final years writing a column which led into a type of social work. All of this was unknown to me and I found it very interesting, with the exception of the extensive litigation. This did, however, give a lot of insight into Bly’s relationships with her family, her return to journalism, and her attitudes toward women and women’s issues at the end of her life.

The parts I enjoyed most were about Bly’s childhood and her time in Austria during the war and its aftermath. I found it astounding how uninformed she was about the war overall and specifically the stance of the United States. Never one to let what other people think affect her opinion of herself, she was convinced that she had information that President Woodrow Wilson desperately needed. With a decidedly pro-German outlook, she was definitely of interest to Military Intelligence.

Overall, the book is well worth the read. Nellie Bly was certainly much more than a “girl” reporter.

Brooke Kroeger is a journalist, a professor of journalism at New York University, and has four published books.

Helen Kendrick Johnson – Author and Anti-Suffrage Activist

Helen Kendrick Johnson at 28 (source)

Helen Kendrick Johnson at 28 (source)

Although the benefits of voting may be obvious to us today, in the 19th century, during the long campaign for women’s suffrage, there were many people, both men and women, who opposed it. One of the more prominent anti-suffragists was Helen Kendrick Johnson, an author, poet, and activist, whose book, Woman and the Republic, was considered one of the best summaries of arguments against suffrage, at least by those who were opposed. In it, she argued that women didn’t need the vote to gain equality and that their role in the “domestic sphere” was essential to maintaining the American republic.

Born in Hamilton, New York on January 4, 1844, Helen was the second daughter of Asahel Clark Kendrick, a professor of Greek at the University of Rochester, and Anne Elizabeth Hopkins Kendrick. Her mother died in childbirth when Helen was seven years old and much of her childhood was spent moving between her father’s home in Rochester and relatives, including the home of her aunt in Clinton, New York, who cared for her three sisters, and occasionally an uncle in Savannah, Georgia.

Helen attended Miss Doolittle’s school when she was living with her father, and much of her education probably came from him. He wanted her to be a Greek scholar, but she wanted to be a writer, and in 1863, she enrolled at the Oread Institute in Worcester, Massachusetts to pursue that goal. The Oread was one of the oldest institutions of higher education for women in the country. Founded by Eli Thayer in 1849, it’s program was modeled after Brown University. There Helen developed close relationships with her professor and Principal of the Institute, Dr. Robert E. Pattison, his wife, and daughters. She considered Mrs. Pattison the “ideal house-mother” and felt secure and welcome in their home, perhaps experiencing real family life for the first time.

Oread Castle, home of the Oread Institute (source)

Oread Castle, home of the Oread Institute (source)

After her time at Oread, Helen returned to Rochester where she met her future husband in the spring of 1867. Rossiter Johnson had studied and graduated at the University of Rochester under Helen’s father. That spring a walking club was organized which included professors and their families and friends. According to Johnson, these were times of pleasant and humorous companionship where the chaperones gave the young people space to get acquainted. During one of these times, Rossiter took the opportunity to say “the wisest and most important thing I ever have said in my life.” By this, I assume, he meant a proposal of marriage, because on May 20, 1869, they were married in Helen’s home by her father.

Rossiter Johnson graduated from the University of Rochester in 1863 and went on to earn both Ph.D. and LL.D. degrees. From 1864 to 1868, he also worked as an editor at the Rochester Democrat, a Republican newspaper and in January, before they were married, he moved to Concord, New Hampshire to become the editor of the Statesman.

Rossiter Johnson (source)

Rossiter Johnson (source)

After their wedding, they set up housekeeping in Concord and Helen began her writing career starting with short stories and Bible studies. Her stories were written for children and published in the Statesman and various magazines. Her first major success was a series of three books called The Roddy Books. The first in the series, Roddy’s Romance, was written as a contest entry, and although it didn’t win the prize when published in book form it was an immediate success.

Around this time, their first child, Laurence, died. He was the first of three out of four children who would die before the age of two. After his death, Helen compiled a collection of poems related to the loss of children. This theme would touch other books which she wrote for families, such as Tears for the Little Ones.

Throughout the 1870s and 1880s, Helen’s focus was on her children and family life, as well as writing related books. Remembering her time with the Pattisons, she began collecting songs appropriate for family time. This evolved into a major project which she published as Our Familiar Songs and Those Who Made Them. The book was 600 pages long and contained 309 songs with words, music, the history of the song, and brief biographical sketches of the authors and composers. It was a great success. Published in September 1881, at the time of her death in 1917, when Rossiter wrote his tribute to her, it had not been out of print.

Helen Kendrick Johnson at 47 (source)

Helen Kendrick Johnson at 47 (source)

Beginning in 1894, Helen edited the American Woman’s Journal which had been founded in 1889 by Mary Foot Seymour. Women submitted articles on many different subjects, one of which was women’s suffrage. Prior to this she had given little thought to the issue, so she began to research it. Of course, she published the articles whether she agreed or not, but she felt that she needed to address the issue.

Helen wanted to see progress for women, to see women able to advance and work in different fields, but she thought this could be achieved without the right to vote. She began her research with the three volume history written by Susan B. Anthony  that described the movement so far, and went on to read many other articles and essays. She found the suffragist’s arguments to be “illogical and unworthy,” and said, “I cannot see the slightest possibility that through the ballot woman can secure one right which she does not at present possess.”

The result of her research was the book titled, Woman and the Republic: A Survey of the Woman Suffrage Movement in the United States and a Discussion of the Claims and Arguments of its Foremost Advocates, published in 1897. It was well-received, at least in anti-suffrage circles, praised for its “calm” and analytical tone, and became a valuable tool for those of that persuasion. There were also critical reviews and many articles written finding flaws in her information and reasoning.

In spite of the fact that Helen supported women working, she was a firm believer in the idea that women should devote themselves to the “domestic sphere,” maintaining the home, caring for children, and working for causes which supported it. To promote this idea, she began to work to support the anti-suffrage cause, writing articles, speaking before groups and the legislatures in both Albany and Washington. In 1912, she founded the Giudon Club for the purpose of discussing political questions and for “active but dignified and effective work against suffrage.”

But time takes its toll and Helen suffered from hardening of the arteries. As she slowed her pace, she spent her last years on Long Island supervising the construction of two cottages she had designed. One of these, named Thalatta, became their summer home where she would spend time writing her final work. It was a companion volume to Woman and the Republic titled Woman’s Place in Creation. Just weeks before her death, she finished the last chapter and arranged the photos for the book.

Helen Kendrick Johnson died January 3, 1917. Her husband and their daughter Florence accompanied her body to Rochester, New York, where she was laid to rest beside the three children she had lost too soon.

Thalatta summer home on Long Island (source)

Thalatta summer home on Long Island (source)

Helen Kendrick Johnson: Her Desire to Stay the Same by Danielle Hillriegel, Utica College (pdf)

Helen Kendrick Johnson (Mrs. Rossiter Johnson) The Story of Her Varied Activities by
Rossiter Johnson (at internet archives)

Woman and the Republic by Helen Kendrick Johnson

Amalia of Oldenburg, Queen of Greece and Plagued by Infertility

Queen Amalia of Greece by Joseph Karl Stieler (source)

Queen Amalia of Greece by Joseph Karl Stieler (source)

As the first Queen of the modern state of Greece, Amalia of Oldenburg began her reign in a positive light. She was beautiful and outgoing with a desire to help the people of a country who had suffered under war and economic hardship. But she had one duty which she was unable to fulfill, the age old problem of producing an heir, and it would, in part, help to bring down the dynasty.

In the 1820s, Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire with the help of Britain, France, and Russia (the Great Powers.) The formal borders were established on February 3, 1830, but soon afterwards the governor, John Capodistria, was assassinated. Seeking a formal end to the war, the Conference of London was convened and it was decided that Greece should be a monarchy. The crown was offered to Otto, Prince of Bavaria, and the line of succession was determined to pass from Otto to his sons or his younger brothers in the event he didn’t have an heir. Otto was crowned on May 27, 1832, but his reign would be plagued with meddling from outside influences in both his political and personal lives.

Amalia was born on December 21, 1818, the daughter of Grand Duke Augustus of Oldenburg and his first wife, Princess Adelheid of Anhalt. Amalia’s mother died when she was two years old and Augustus’s second wife, Amalia’s maternal aunt, died when she was young as well, leaving her education and care in the hands of a governess. As was typical of girls of her station, she received instruction in foreign languages, painting, music, and dancing.  She was intelligent and referred to as “robust”, being particularly fond of more active pursuits, such as theater, horseback riding, and hunting.

Otto’s father, Ludwig I of Bavaria, selected Amalia as a bride for his son and when they met, it appeared to be a good match. They were both young and attractive and seemed to get along well. Otto and Amalia were married on Dec 22, 1836, and Amalia initially was well-liked by the people. She was beautiful, vivacious, and fashionable, even creating a style of dress which became widely adopted. The country was poor and Amalia worked toward social improvements, created gardens, and is even credited with bringing the Christmas tree to Greece.

After her arrival, Amalia was watched eagerly for signs that she was pregnant with an heir for the kingdom. By the end of the “three-year grace period”, rumors gave way to serious discussions at court and in medical circles about the couple and their apparent infertility. Possible solutions ranged from spells and exorcisms to the latest scientific advancements of the day.

“The wife of Amalia’s priest, Christiane Lüth, records several of these suggestions in her diary: that Amalia should swallow a whole cicada or gunpowder from her husband’s pistols mixed with honey, that she should be read poems especially composed for the occasion, that one of her maids should hang an icon of the Nativity outside her door while in disguise.”

Prince Otto in 1833 by Joseph Karl Stieler (source)

Prince Otto in 1833 by Joseph Karl Stieler (source)

Both Amalia and Otto were examined for possible reasons of infertility. Many of the reasons put forth appear to have been politically motivated with the opposing side vigorously denying it. One doctor informed the English ambassador in Athens that Otto had a “small anatomical defect.” The report was never officially verified and it was ignored by Otto’s supporters. Another rumor about Otto stated that his father Ludwig I, well-known for his many affairs, had transmitted a venereal disease to Otto causing him to be infertile, but Otto’s three brothers all fathered children putting the rumor to rest.

While it was recommended to Otto that he restrict horseback riding and take a three hour rest before intercourse, the main focus of investigation was on Amalia. The simplest suggested cause was her active lifestyle, including horseback riding, but when restricting these activities didn’t result in pregnancy, she returned to doing what she loved. A diagnosis of “incompatibility between the spouses genitalia” suggested a treatment of different positions for intercourse. This also failed to have the desired effect.

However, two possible causes identified by a pelvic exam resulted in a more complicated and painful therapy. Amalia was diagnosed as having a “narrowness of the womb” and an “irritability of the outer genitalia.” The therapy recommended entailed insertion of a sponge into the vagina and leaving it there for 24 hours accompanied by a bath and rest. The treatment was painful and the Greek doctors, who considered Amalia healthy, objected to its use. Otto’s family however, insisted on use of all possible scientific methods rather than letting fate take its course. Dr Fischer, the proponent of the therapy, insisted on its use throughout Amalia’s fertile years in spite of a lack of success.

In opposition to Fischer’s diagnosis, a Dr Brescau of Munich didn’t find any anatomical anomaly, and a midwife who examined Amalia stated that she was “almost a virgin.” This was reinforced by a rumor that an autopsy performed after her death found that she was a virgin. This of course was denied by Otto’s supporters, and in fact the official report of the autopsy has never been found.

More recently, it has been suggested that Amalia suffered from Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome, a condition in which the uterus is absent and the vagina malformed. But, Amalia’s contemporary doctors never suggested the absence of a uterus. Most 20th century historians doubt both Otto’s impotence and Amalia’s virginity (both were rumored to have affairs), but the contradictions in historical sources make it difficult if not impossible to know the truth. Nevertheless, Amalia’s infertility contributed to a change in opinion about her.

Over time, Amalia became more involved in politics. This, coupled with the facts that she remained a Protestant in an Orthodox country and failed to produce an heir, resulted in harsh attacks. In 1861, there was an assassination attempt against her by a university student. He was captured and sentenced to death and the queen intervened to change the sentence to life in prison, but he was considered a hero among certain factions.

A year after the attack, in 1862, there was an uprising in Athens while the royal couple were visiting the Peloponnese. The Great Powers that supported Otto urged him not to resist and he and Amalia went into exile via British warship. In spite of the fact that Otto’s younger brothers were successors, it has been suggested by John Van der Kiste that the uprising might not have occurred if Amalia had born an heir.

The couple spent their remaining years in Bavaria. They both loved Greece and spent time each day speaking Greek as a reminder of their time there. Amalia died on May 20, 1875, eight years after Otto. They were buried side-by-side in Munich.

The Expulsion of King Otto, author unknown (source)

The Expulsion of King Otto, author unknown (source)

E Poulakou-Rebelakou, C Tsiamis, N Tompros, G Creatsas, “The infertility of the first royal couple of Greece

Kings of the Hellenes by John Van der Kiste

Amalia of Oldenburg, Queen of Greece at Arrayed in Gold

Otto of Greece at Wikipedia

Amalia of Oldenburg at Wikipedia

Shirley Graham Du Bois – Political Activist, Composer, Playwright, and Author

Shirley Graham, Carl Van Vechten Photographs, Library of Congress (source)

Shirley Graham, Carl Van Vechten Photographs, Library of Congress (source)

I wrote a short piece for the Facebook page last week on Shirley Graham Du Bois, but feel that this remarkable woman deserves more attention. Not only was she a well-established political activist before she married her famous husband, W.E.B. Du Bois, in 1951, she was also a composer , a published playwright, a lecturer and an author. Taught as a child to stand up to injustice, she wrote her first editorial when she was 13 and never looked back.

Born November 11, 1896, Shirley was the oldest of five children born to David A Graham, an African Methodist Episcopal minister and his wife Elizabeth Etta Bell Graham. The family moved frequently because of her father’s assignments. Living in both northern and southern states such as Indiana, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Colorado, they ended up in Spokane, Washington, where Shirley graduated from Lewis and Clark High School. Her father officiated at her first marriage to Shadrach McCants in 1918. The couple had two boys, Robert (1923) and David (1925), before obtaining a divorce in 1927.

After the divorce, Shirley left her two boys with her parents and traveled extensively, studying and teaching. She studied at Howard University School of Music, the Institute of Musical Arts in NYC, and at the Sorbonne before entering Oberlin College in 1931 where she received her undergraduate degree and a Masters in Music. She taught music and fine arts during this time to support herself. Later, she took classes toward a doctorate in English at Yale and New York University.

During her time at the Sorbonne, she met many people of African descent and developed a desire to express African and African-American themes through her music. In 1932, her opera, Tom Tom: An Epic of Music and the Negro, premiered in Cleveland, Ohio to great acclaim, making her the first African-American woman to write and produce an opera with an all-black cast. It told the story of Africans’ journey to North America as enslaved people, their struggles, and finally their freedom.  It took place in a stadium setting and attracted 25,000 people to the first two performances. She wrote other musicals, as well as comedic and tragic plays, including Deep Rivers (1939), It’s Morning (1940), Track Thirteen (1940), and Elijah’s Raven (1941).

After her time at Oberlin, Shirley served as a director of a unit of the Chicago Federal Theater, the YWCA-USO Director at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, and founded the Graham Artists Bureau in Chicago with her brother Bill to secure bookings for African-American artists. Dismissed after defending men who were protesting the deaths of three black soldiers at Fort Huachuca, she was hired by the NAACP as a field secretary to organize new branches across the country.

Shirley was a prolific writer having written her first editorial at the age of 13, after being barred from a YWCA swimming pool. She wrote in several genres, but is particularly known for her biographies for both adults and children. Her first book, George Washington Carver, Scientist, was published in 1944, followed by Paul Robeson, Citizen of the World (1946), and Your Most Humble Servant: Benjamin Banneker (1949), among others. She focused not only on famous African-Americans, but also on international individuals such as Gamal Nassar and Julius Nyerere. She also wrote two novels, Zulu Heart (1974) and a historical novel about the life of Frederick Douglass, There Once Was a Slave (1947) which won the Messner Prize.

W.E.B. Du Bois c. 1946, Carl Van Vechten Photographs, Library of Congress (source)

W.E.B. Du Bois c. 1946, Carl Van Vechten Photographs, Library of Congress (source)

Politically active throughout her life she wrote and delivered many speeches and published articles on a variety of topics related to minorities, women, and peace. Her focus was not confined to issues in the United States, but was global. In 1961, she was one of the founders of Freedomways, a civil rights magazine, and became its first general editor. She was also one of the founders of the Progressive Party and in 1948 gave the keynote address at the convention in Philadelphia which nominated former Vice President Henry Wallace for President.

Shirley’s second marriage was to W.E.B. Du Bois on Feb 27, 1951, about six months after the death of his first wife. Thirty years his junior, she had known him since she was a child and as an adult had worked as a colleague on many common causes.

After their wedding, he was indicted for “un-American” activities, but there was insufficient evidence for a conviction. For the next 10 years, they fought legal battles with the government and continued to be harassed by US officials because of their left-leaning stances.  Finally, they decided to emigrate to Ghana in 1961. They became citizens and even after W.E.B.’s death in 1963, Shirley remained in Ghana until the coup d’etat in 1966.

A woman of many talents, after her husband’s death, Shirley worked with Ghana Television, developing studio space, training staff, and helping to develop the national infrastructure. In 1966, with the overthrow of the government led by Kwame Nkrumah, she moved to Cairo, Egypt to live with her son David who was working as a journalist.

In Cairo, Egypt, she traveled throughout the world speaking and promoting the cause of liberation for Africans, African-Americans, and women. In 1971, she also published her memoir of W.E.B., His Day Is Marching On. In 1977, Shirley traveled to Beijing, China, for cancer treatment, where she died on March 27th.

Shirley Graham Du Bois was a very talented and versatile woman who had a passion for justice that wouldn’t be denied.


Shirley Graham Du Bois Papers, Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

DuBois, Shirley Graham (1896-1944) at Black Past Remembered & Reclaimed

Shirley Graham Du Bois at Wikipedia

Helene Stöcker – Fighting for Women’s Control Over Their Lives

Helene Stöcker c. 1900 (source)

Helene Stöcker c. 1900 (source)

From time to time in women’s rights protests you see signs saying something along the lines of “Didn’t my Grandmother fight for these rights?” It’s true, the battles aren’t new, or confined to any particular country. One of the earliest champions for women’s rights, including control over their own bodies, was Helene Stöcker of Germany.

Born November 13, 1869 in Elberfeld, Germany, Helene grew up in a strict Calvinist household. She was the oldest of eight children born to Peter Heinrich Ludwig Stöcker and Hulda Bergmann Stöcker. Her father had wanted to be a missionary, but had to take over the family business, still Bible reading and daily prayer were part of the family routine. Helene eventually rejected her father’s religion, but acknowledged his influence on her values, including personal integrity, charity, and a sense of justice.

Her mother also influenced her future concerns. Like Margaret Sanger, Helene saw the toll that eight births had taken on her mother. Only five of Hulda’s children survived to adulthood, and when there were complications at the birth of her only son, Helene had to take on the responsibilities of the household. This (along with Gretchen’s situation in Goethe’s Faust, as she later said) led her to consider the consequences related to reproduction for women in traditional relationships.

Helene was a voracious reader and an independent thinker. She attended a girls’ school and in 1890 a teacher’s seminary, preparing to be a teacher. But, instead of following this path, she moved to Berlin and began to attend classes at the university in literature, philosophy and economics. At the time, the university didn’t allow women to obtain degrees, so she moved on to Glasgow and finally to the University at Bern where she received her doctorate in Literature in 1902, becoming one of the first women in Germany to do so.

In 1905, Helene became the head of the League for the Protection of Mothers (Bund für Mutterschutz) which had been founded in Berlin in 1904 by Ruth Bré. The change in leadership was due to a conflict over the direction of the organization. Bré was primarily concerned with the situation of single mothers and their children. In addition to promoting equality of illegitimate children under the law and establishing homes for unwed mothers, Helene also promoted sex education, access to contraceptives, and the legalization of abortion. In 1908 the League was renamed the League for the Protection of Mothers and Sexual Reform (Bund für Mutterschutz und Sexualreform).

The League was engaged in practical solutions, but also political activism and debate. It included many well-known intellectuals both men and women, including Lily Braun, Marie Stritt, Adele Schreiber, Max Weber, and Friedrich Naumann. Their activities and theoretical debate were publicized through two journals, edited by Helene, called Mutterschutz and Die Neue Generation. According to Allen, Stöcker was the intellectual leader of the group. One of her colleagues, Grete Meisel-Hess said that “Her personality expresses a calm self-confidence; no attack can intimidate her or deter her from her chosen course of action.”

One attack common to many feminist groups of the time was the accusation that they promoted “free love.” While the focus of the group was traditional heterosexual relationships, they insisted on the need for equality between men and women in marriage, but also legal recognition of what they called “free relationships,” which included not only support for single mothers, but homosexuality, and the right to divorce.

Beginning during WWI, Helene shifted much of her energy to the Peace movement. She had long been a pacifist having joined the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society, DFG) in 1892 while in Berlin. And in 1921, she was involved in the founding of the organization named Paco which later was known as the War Resisters’ International and is still in existence.

Helene never married. In 1899, she spent one semester in school at Glasgow. There she met and fell in love with a German lecturer named Alexander Tilly. Tilly was married with children, but when his wife died in 1902, Helene briefly returned to care for him and his children. She found, however, that maintaining her professional life while being a wife and step-mother was too difficult and she returned to Berlin. In 1905, she met Bruno Springer, a lawyer with whom she had a relationship until his death in 1931. They never married, but kept separate apartments on the same floor to be near each other.

Helene’s written works were extensive, as was her political support for her ideas, including her anti-war efforts. For this reason, life in Germany became difficult during the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazi party. In 1937, she was stripped of her German citizenship and her doctorate degree. Her bank account was seized, her writings blacklisted, and her manuscripts burned. She first fled to Switzerland and then England. Attending a conference in Sweden when the war broke out, she decided to stay, but when Norway was invaded, she left Europe and eventually ended up in the United States where she died of cancer on February 24, 1943.

Note: Most of Helene Stöcker’s works don’t seem to have been translated into English, but the journal article in Signs by Ann Taylor Allen gives an excellent analysis of her ideas and how they contrasted with other men and women both in and outside of the League. If you’re interested in her ideas I highly recommend it.

Helene Stöcker (1869-1943) (link to pdf file)

Allen, Ann Taylor. “Mothers of the New Generation: Adele Schreiber, Helene Stöcker, and the Evolution of a German Idea of Motherhood, 1900-1914”. Signs 10.3 (1985): 418–438.(Behind a subscription wall at Jstor, but you can read three articles free every 14 days.)

Braker, Regina, “Helene Stocker’s Pacifism in the Weimar Republic: Between Ideal and Reality“, at Project Muse. (The full text is available only through institution subscription, but the summary has good information.)

Women in Law: A Bio-bibliographical Sourcebook by Rebecca Mae Salkar and Mary Volcansek (excerpt from Google Books)

Helene Stöcker, “The Modern Woman” (1893, at German History Docs