Maria Angela Ardinghelli – Italian Scientist and Translator (1730–1825)

During the time of Laura Bassi and Maria Agnesi, there was another learned woman of mathematics and science. Maria Angela Ardinghelli was well-known during her time, although she has been overlooked from a historical perspective, or known simply as a translator of works by Stephen Hales. In fact, she was the only woman whose letters were read at the meetings of the Paris Academy of Sciences on a regular basis. Bertucci describes her as a de facto foreign correspondent of the scientific activities in Italy. She sent them meteorological data, natural history information about Naples, and reports of unusual medical cases.

Engraving of the activities of the Académie des Sciences c. 1698 (source)

Engraving of the activities of the Académie des Sciences c. 1698 (source)

Ardinghelli’s family was one of the oldest and most distinguished in Italy, having moved from Florence to Naples when the Medici family came to power. But Nicola, her father, married against his parents’ wishes and was punished accordingly. He was denied his hereditary titles and was restricted to a very modest fortune. Nicola and his wife, Caterina Piccillo, had two children, but Maria Angela’s brother died young, so she was raised an only child. Her father provided her with the best available tutors for her education. She studied mathematics, natural philosophy, English, French and Latin.

In 1734, Naples gained a new king, Charles of Bourbon, and became an autonomous kingdom for the first time in centuries. Charles wanted to revive the university and cultural life of the city. Fernando Spinelli, prince of Tarsia, organized a public library and museum at his palace, and one of Maria Angela’s tutors was curator of the “physics cabinet” and a teacher at the new Academia Spinella. In 1747, to celebrate the opening of the library and birth of the crown prince, Spinelli dedicated a celebration to the king in which guests recited poems. Maria Angela was one of the ladies who spoke, and astonished everyone by composing her poem in Latin.

The Palazzo Tarsia was known for experiments with electricity and its association with Newton. It was also a place where Maria Angela could safely pursue knowledge and display her own talents. There she was seen as the protégé of Della Torre and her other teachers, rather than a woman “experimenting alone with men in the dark.” (I’m not really sure what the distinction is, because she is depicted in at least one image, while engaged in experiments, as the only woman surrounded by men.)

The Spinella Academy was intentionally modeled on the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, and Maria Angela contributed to this association by dedicating her translation of Stephen Hales’s Haemastaticks to the former French ambassador, the marquis De L’Hôpital. However, her translations were much more than literary works; they were annotated texts where she added commentary in footnotes, the dedication and a section titled “To the Reader.” In this way she was able to evaluate the science without exposing herself to ridicule.

In the case of Haemastaticks, she worked with both the English original and the French translation by François Bossier de Sauvages, and even corrected the French translation. She translated De Sauvages’ footnotes, repeated his calculations, and wrote her own footnotes. She also bolstered her own credibility by corresponding with the author to clarify the text. She was careful not to overstep the boundaries of modesty by not presuming to take the same position as De Sauvage, who replicated Hale’s experiments with a view of challenging them, but still made her mastery of the concepts clear with her commentary. When she did report on her own experiments, she framed the discussion as an invitation to explore with her, by following her thought process, as opposed to a challenge to the authority of her male colleagues.

Maria Angela’s efforts were very successful. A positive review by Giovanni Lami in the Florence’s Literary News brought her to the attention of other Italians; Hale was enormously pleased and encouraged her to translate his Vegetable Staticks as well; even De Sauvages was pleased in the end because of the increase in his international reputation. She did translate Vegetable Staticks with the result of increasing her reputation in France as well as Italy.

Jean-Antoine Nollet (source)

Jean-Antoine Nollet (source)

Her family was also supportive, and she began to host conversazioni which were well attended by both local academics and visiting foreigners. This is where she met Jean-Antoine Nollet, a French Abbé and physicist. Nollet and the academics at Palazzo Tarsia were both eager to solidify connections between Naples and France, so Della Torre introduced Nollet to Maria Angela.

Nollet was very impressed and spent several evenings at her home attending her conversazioni. They began a correspondence in which they exchanged academic works as well as discussing more personal matters, but he also encouraged his colleagues to correspond with her and to visit when they were in Naples. Their relationship was misunderstood by at least one colleague, partly because people had difficulty believing that a relationship between a man and woman, based on an interest in the physical world,  could be without “suggestive overtones.”

Not only was Maria Angela’s family supportive, but she was devoted to them as well and had no desire to travel herself. She turned down a marriage proposal from a French architect as well as an invitation to become tutor to the princesses at Versailles. But she was happy to be a contact for visiting academics who wanted to experience the natural history of Naples. Over time, she became a mediator between scholars in Paris and Naples and was relied on to circulate papers and information coming from Paris.

In spite of this support, not everyone welcomed women into intellectual circles and at some point Maria Angela began to publish anonymously. Bertucci suggests that it is likely related to the death of her father which occurred sometime before 1765. Without a male protector, she ran the risk of losing her respectability. She didn’t give up scientific work, however she had to be more circumspect about her image.

Maria Angela did marry, sometime after the death of her mother, prior to 1777. Her husband, Carlo Crispo, was a magistrate in Calabria, in the south of the Kingdom of Naples. She continued her correspondence with scholars in Naples and France, and helped Crispo expand his own circle of contacts. She was able to help him advance in his career, eventually moving back to Naples where she helped him with his work and gave up science.

She left Naples during the revolution of 1799, but returned during the Napoleonic era. Over the years she had continued to teach privately and had a respectable income which sustained her during her 24 years as a widow, before her death in 1825.

Note: I couldn’t find an image of Ardinghelli in the public domain. There is a medallion which was sculpted of her that can be viewed here.

Resources
Bertucci, Paola, “The In/visible Woman: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the Circulation of Knowledge between Paris and Naples in the Eighteenth Century“, Isis, Vol. 104, No. 2 (June 2013), pp. 226-249.
Women in Science: Antiquity through the Nineteenth Century by Marilyn Bailey Ogilivie

Read about other Famous Women Mathematicians and Scientists.

Isabella Bird Bishop: Travel as a Cure for Poor Health

Isabella Bird (source)

Isabella Bird (source)

As promised, more on the life of Isabella Bird Bishop. She was truly a world traveler, and although she loved it, her traveling life began out of necessity.

On July 11, 1868, Isabella Bird left her home in Scotland a very sick woman. Problems with her spine had flared up; she was depressed and had trouble sleeping. The trip was uneventful as she traveled to Australia and then New Zealand, but on her way back home via the United States, she would be revived, by a hurricane. The raw power of nature filled her with life. From that point on, Isabella spent most of the rest of her life traveling, and making up for what she saw as a selfish life by doing good works.

Isabella was born on October 15, 1831 in Yorkshire, England, to Edward Bird and his second wife Dora Lawson. Edward was a minister and it was a stern, but loving, household where Isabella and her younger sister, Henrietta, were taught the Bible and the importance of charitable works.

From a young age, Isabella was a sickly child. The family doctor prescribed outdoor activity, so her father began the habit of taking her with him to visit parishioners. She rode in front of him on his horse from about the age of three, until she was old enough to ride herself. On these short trips, Edward taught Isabella to appreciate nature, identify trees and plants, measure distance, and how to be an excellent horsewoman. In addition to learning botany from their father, Dora taught Isabella and Henrietta, called Hennie, a mix of subjects and the girls became avid readers.

At the age of 18, Isabella had a fibrous tumor removed from her spine. The surgery went well, but she didn’t improve quickly and, as was common during Victorian times, her doctor suggested travel. So in 1854, her father gave her £100 and sent her off to visit her cousins in Canada. He told her she could stay away as long as the money lasted. After visiting her family on Prince Edward Island, she traveled west to Quebec, Chicago and Cincinnati, then back though New England and home.

Isabella’s letters home were so vivid and engaging that her family urged her to have them published. She had been publishing articles since she was 16, so a friend put her in contact with John Murray, who not only agreed to publish the book, but became her life-long friend. The book, The Englishwoman in America, was an immediate success, but it wasn’t long before Isabella’s health began to decline again and she was off back to the United States. This time, at her father’s suggestion, to investigate the current religious revival.

The next ten years were difficult for the sisters and kept Isabella close to home. Their father died in 1858, and their mother in 1866. Isabella used the time  to publish her second book, The Aspects of Religion in the United States of America, about her trip to the United States, believing it was what her father would want her to do.

Henrietta Amelia Bird (source)

Henrietta Amelia Bird (source)

The sisters settled into a routine. Hennie moved to Tobermory, a village on the Isle of Mull, in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, where she kept the home fires burning while Isabella wandered. Isabella’s health was very bad at this time. In addition to her spinal problems, she was depressed and suffering from insomnia. She needed to take another voyage. Her first major journey after her parent’s deaths was to Australia and New Zealand, returning via Hawaii and the United States. It was during the passage to Hawaii that her vessel, the Nevada, was caught in the hurricane.

In Hawaii, Isabella discovered the ease of riding astride rather than side-saddle, a habit which she continued while exploring the Sierra Nevada mountains in the United States. There she visited mining camps and pioneer settlements where she joined in the work. She also met a man named Jim Nugent, “a man any woman might love but no sane woman would marry.” It was a romantic time, but Jim drank and was moody, so Isabella’s practical nature took over and she left for home. Six months later, Jim was shot and killed by a man on the ranch where she had stayed.

Back in Scotland, Isabella met a man with more sticking power. In addition to preparing two more books for publication, one about the six months she spent in Hawaii, the other about her time in the Rocky Mountains, she found time to take a botany class. There she met Dr. John Bishop, a physician ten years her junior.

John Bishop was very different than Jim. He was gentle, calm, and well respected as a physician. The kind of man who has a stabilizing influence on those around him. He soon became the sister’s physician. Intrigued by Isabella’s intelligence and boldness, it also wasn’t long before he fell in love with her.

Isabella Bird Bishop in Manchurian dress c. 1899 (source)

Isabella Bird Bishop in Manchurian dress c. 1899 (source)

When John proposed in 1877, Isabella told him that she wasn’t the marrying kind, but he wasn’t put off. She wanted to keep their friendship as it was and wrote that he “behaved beautifully” when she told him no. So, rather than commit herself to marriage, Isabella took another trip. This time to Japan, Singapore and on to the Malay Peninsula. There she rode an elephant for the first time and had an unusual dining experience with apes.

Following her usual pattern, Isabella wrote two books about her journey, a two volume work on Japan and a book about her Malay adventures. These would be the last based on letters home to Hennie. In 1881, Hennie became ill and died of typhoid fever. Isabella was distraught, however, while still in mourning, later that year she married John.

Her biographer, Anna Stoddart, was of the opinion that Isabella would never have married had Hennie lived. Pat Barr suggests that she originally refused his proposal because of possible restrictions on her travel while she was still of child-bearing age. Regardless, their life together wasn’t long. Isabella was ill for most of the time, and when she recovered, she nursed John, who had developed pernicious anemia. He died shortly before their fifth anniversary.

Isabella was at loose ends. She had always had someone to make a home for her, but now she became transient. At one point, she took a nursing course in London, but when she tried private nursing, it didn’t work well for her. Finally, she settled on the idea of establishing missionary hospitals. Her books had sold well and Isabella was financially secure. Over the remaining years of her life, she donated money to found five missionary hospitals, one in memory of Hennie in Pakistan, one in memory of John in Kashmir, and three others in China.

Although Isabella gave money and left the building and administration of hospitals to others, this gave her an excuse to travel. So in 1889, she was off again to the East. This time she began in India and Pakistan, traveled up to Kashmir where she spent time with Tibetans, traveled with sheep caravans, and had one of her servants arrested as a murderer. (Isabella knew nothing of his past until he was apprehended. When asked to check her belongings to see if anything was stolen, she refused because he had behaved admirably with her, although he did have a tendency to scare the villagers.)

After descending from the Tibetan plateau, she made the acquaintance of a British major who was headed to Persia on a mission. He invited her to come along. This resulted in a 500 miles ride from Baghdad to Tehran and geographical survey of southern Persia. When they parted ways, she embarked on a 1000 mile ride through western Persia, Kurdistan and Armenia, finally returning home via steamer from Constantinople.

Isabella at Shàntóu, Guangdong province, China (source)

Isabella at Shàntóu, Guangdong province, China (source)

Isabella took one more trip to Asia. Between 1894 and 1897, she traveled to Japan again, then on to Korea and China. In China, she journeyed down the Yangtze River and once again to the border of Tibet.

Now in her sixties, she stayed active, taking classes, giving lectures, and of course writing books and articles. Almost all of her books were best sellers and she had become quite well-known, so she had considerable correspondence as well. As she neared her death, one of the most difficult things for her was not being able to hold a pen to write for any length of time. But, before that time came, Isabella had one more trip in her.

At the age of 69, Isabella surprised everyone by taking a 1000 mile trek through Morocco. She visited a number of cities and even met the Emperor, although it had to be “secretly managed,” and wrapping up the trip with a visit to the Berber tribes of the Atlas Mountains. She described the scene where she met the young Sultan, where he and his officials were all dressed in pure white.

“I standing in front below the steps of the throne, bare-headed and in black silk, the only European woman who has ever seen an Emperor of Morocco I as I am the first who has ever entered the Atlas Mountains and who has ever visited the fierce Berber tribes. When I wished the Sultan long life and happiness at parting, he said that he hoped when his hair was as white as mine, he might have a much energy as I have!”

That was in 1901, and Isabella’s energy began to decline. She reached the point where she couldn’t write, but her mind was clear and she received visitors and many letters from all over the world to keep her company. Isabella Bird Bishop died on October 7, 1904, having lived a very full life.

Isabella at Tangier in 1901 (source)

Isabella at Tangier in 1901 (source)

Resources
On Top of the World: Five Women Explorers in Tibet by Luree Miller
The Life of Isabella Bird (Mrs. Bishop) by Anna M. Stoddart, 1908, at Internet Archives
A Curious Life for a Lady: The Story of Isabella Bird by Pat Barr
“Obituary: Death of Mrs. Isabella Bishop”, Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, Volume 36, Jan 1904.

Isabella Bird Bishop: Riding Elephants and Dining With Apes – In Her Own Words

Isabella Bird (source)

Isabella Bird (source)

Isabella Bird Bishop was truly a world traveler. During her life she visited places as diverse as New England, Australia, and the jungles of East Asia. In 1878, she left Scotland for a trip to Japan, moved on to Singapore, and then spontaneously decided to go to the Malay Peninsula. The excerpts below are taken from her book The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither. (The Golden Chersonese is an old name for the Malay Peninsula.)

BRITISH RESIDENCY, KWALA KANGSA, February 16.

“This is rather exciting, for I have had an unusual journey, and my circumstances are unusual, for Mr. Low, the Resident, has not returned, and I am not only alone in his bungalow in the heart of the jungle, but so far as I can learn I am the only European in the region.”

Riding an Elephant

“Before I came I dreamt of howdahs and cloth of gold trappings, but my elephant had neither. In fact there was nothing grand about him but his ugliness. His back was covered with a piece of raw hide, over which were several mats, and on either side of the ridgy backbone a shallow basket, filled with fresh leaves and twigs, and held in place by ropes of rattan. I dropped into one of these baskets from the porch, a young Malay lad into the other, and my bag was tied on behind with rattan. A noose of the same with a stirrup served for the driver to mount.”

“This mode of riding is not comfortable. One sits facing forward with the feet dangling over the edge of the basket.* This edge soon produces a sharp ache or cramp, and when one tries to get relief by leaning back on anything, the awkward, rolling motion is so painful, that one reverts to the former position till it again becomes intolerable. “

“Certainly I always dreamed that there must be something splendid in riding on an elephant, but I don’t feel the least accession of dignity in consequence.”

“One time the driver went off to gossip, the elephant “turned into the jungle, where he began to rend and tear the trees, and then going to a mud-hole, he drew all the water out of it, squirted it with a loud noise over himself and his riders, soaking my clothes with it, and when he turned back to the road again, he several times stopped and seemed to stand on his head by stiffening his proboscis and leaning upon it, and when I hit him with my umbrella he uttered the loudest roar I ever heard. My Malay fellow-rider jumped off and ran back for the driver, on which the panniers came altogether down on my side, and I hung on with difficulty, wondering what other possible contingencies could occur, always expecting that the beast, which was flourishing his proboscis, would lift me off with it and deposit me in a mud-hole.”

Eventually, the elephant refused to go any farther and Isabella had to walk the remaining distance to Mr. Low’s house at Kwala Kangsa. The driver told her it was a “wicked elephant”, but others later told her it was sick.

Isabella's first elephant ride (source)

Isabella’s first elephant ride (source)

An Unusual Dining Experience

“I was received by a magnificent Oriental butler, and after I had had a delicious bath, dinner, or what Assam was pleased to call breakfast, was “served.” The word “served” was strictly applicable, for linen, china, crystal, flowers, cooking, were all alike exquisite.”

“My valise had not arrived, and I had been obliged to redress myself in my mud-splashed tweed dress, therefore I was much annoyed to find the table set for three, and I hung about unwillingly in the veranda, fully expecting two Government clerks in faultless evening dress to appear, and I was vexed to think that my dream of solitude was not to be realized, when Assam more emphatically assured me that the meal was “served,” and I sat down, much mystified, at the well-appointed table, when he led in a large ape, and the Malay servant brought in a small one, and a Sikh brought in a large retriever and tied him to my chair! This was all done with the most profound solemnity. The circle being then complete, dinner proceeded with great stateliness. The apes had their curry, chutney, pineapple, eggs, and bananas on porcelain plates, and so had I. The chief difference was that, whereas I waited to be helped, the big ape was impolite enough occasionally to snatch something from a dish as the butler passed round the table, and that the small one before very long migrated from his chair to the table, and, sitting by my plate, helped himself daintily from it. What a grotesque dinner party!  What a delightful one! My “next of kin” were so reasonably silent; they required no conversational efforts; they were most interesting companions. “Silence is golden,” I felt; shall I ever enjoy a dinner party so much again?”

A map of the Malay Peninsula from James Low, 1836 (source)

A map of the Malay Peninsula from James Low, 1836 (source)

More to come about Isabella’s life and travels in another post.

Source
The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither by Isabella Bird Bishop at Internet Archive

Nellie Bly Meets Julia Grant – In Her Own Words

This brief article appeared in Godey’s Lady’s Book in December 1888 in preparation for a full-length article by Nellie Bly in the January issue.

The following extract from an interview with Mrs. Gen. Grant by Nellie Bly , printed in the N.Y. WORLD, October 28th, will show our subscribers who Nellie Bly is:

“I was somewhat nervous about my visit to Mrs. Grant. I only knew of her as the wife of the famous general; the successful hostess for eight years in the White House; the woman who had, in making a tour of the world, been received as a queen in every civilized land.

Would anyone wonder, then, at my apprehension, when women of so much meaner light so often try to parry all attempts at approach? But I was wrong.”

“My son tells me,” Mrs. Grant said, with a pleasant laugh, after greetings had been exchanged and she had drawn me by the hand to a chair and seated herself on a lounge, most cordially near, “that Nellie Bly is a little scamp”—

“Oh, no, no,” I broke in, but holding her finger up playfully, she continued:

“That, not being content with exposing the Blackwell’s Island Insane Asylum—yes, and benefiting it wondrously—and exposing Phelps, the great Albany lobbyist, she needs must go to Central Park and allow herself to be ‘mashed,’ and then tell all about it in THE WORLD , so that now none of the men dare wink at a girl while out driving, lest she be Nellie Bly .”

“Why, that’s a shame,” I replied, and we both laughed, I fear not altogether in pity of the men.

Nellie Bly’ s first article will appear in the January issue of GODEY’S. Be sure your subscription is sent in on time, to get this issue.

Source
“Who is Nellie Bly?” Godey’s Lady’s Book, December, 1888
Transcription: Accessible Archives

Photo source: Julia Grant, Brady-Handy Photograph Collection (Library of Congress)
Photo source: Nellie Bly, H. J. Myers, photographer (Library of Congress)

The Extraordinary Life of Alexandra David-Néel

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1933 in Tibet (source)

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1933 in Tibet (source)

Alexandra David-Néel is one of the most extraordinary women I have ever read about. She was a Buddhist scholar and teacher, a prolific writer, and from an early age an inveterate, often solitary, traveler. She became an opera singer to support herself and traveled over much of China and Tibet disguised as a beggar. However, she is probably most well-known as the first western woman to enter the forbidden city of Lhasa.

Alexandra David-Néel was born on October 24, 1868, to a French father, Louis Pierre David, and a Belgian mother, Alexandrine Borghmans David. Louis David was a school teacher turned revolutionary journalist who fled France after Louis Napoleon’s coup d’etat in 1851. He settled in Louvain, Belgium where he met Alexandrine. She was 20 years his junior and they were not well-matched in intellect or interests.

Although, Alexandra grew up in Belgium, her father received permission to travel to Paris shortly before her birth so that she could be born a French citizen. Alexandra’s memories of her childhood sound bleak. She remembered her father as aloof and her mother as being primarily interested in social concerns. She felt neglected and unloved.

As a child, Alexandra had a longing to travel, but not to see sites and people; she was looking for solitude. She found this to an extent in reading, but also ran away on several occasions. The first was when she was five years old and was found in a nearby forest. At fifteen, she ventured farther afield, walking from Ostend where the family was vacationing, into the Netherlands and crossing over to England. Another time, Alexandra traveled by train to Switzerland and hiked over the Saint-Gotthard Pass through the Alps. Both trips were without her parents knowledge and ended when she ran out of money.

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1886 (source)

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1886 (source)

As a young woman, she rejected Catholicism and began to study comparative religions. She attended lectures and discussions at the Theosophical Society in Paris, which is where she probably first encountered Buddhism and became fascinated by Far Eastern cultures. But the place in Paris which made the most dramatic impression on Alexandra was the Musée Guimet, a museum devoted to Asian art. The museum was founded by Émile Étienne Guimet, who was commissioned to study religions of the Far East by the minister of public instruction in France. There in a small reading room, Alexandra found her longed for solitude and as she would say later, her vocation.

In 1890, Alexandra decided to use the money from a small inheritance to travel to India. She traveled by ship to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and then by train all over the Indian sub-continent. On her journey she studied the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita, Sanskrit under Annie Besant, and yoga with Swami Bhaskarananda of Varanasi. She was gone for almost a year and as before, returned home when she was almost out of money.

Louis David had had a reversal of fortune, and Alexandra needed to find a way to support herself. She had always been talented musically and decided to become an opera singer. Beginning in 1896, she toured with several opera companies, including Opéra Comique and L’Opéra d’Athènes, until she took a position as director with Casino de Tunis in 1902. The next year, she changed directions and became a journalist, writing for both English and French magazines.

It was in Tunis where Alexandra met and lived with Philippe-François Néel, a Frenchman who was working in Tunis as a railroad engineer. A friend remembered their relationship as one of affection and mutual respect, but it was definitely out of the ordinary. On August 3, 1904, Alexandra and Philippe were married at the French consulate in Tunis. Five days later, they returned to France and went in different directions.

Later that year in December, Alexandra’s father died. Her trip home and the cold reception from her mother launched her into a period of deep self-analysis and a realization of what her life would be like if she pursued marriage and motherhood. She came to the conclusion that “freedom for her was the most important thing in life,” and she had to create her own life on her own terms.

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1924 at Lhassa, Tibet (source)

Alexandra David-Néel c. 1924 at Lhasa, Tibet (source)

Alexandra wrote of her struggles to Philippe. “You are the best husband one could dream of, I acknowledge it without hesitation and it is for that reason I am tormented by a situation that is extremely painful for you.” He accepted her position, at least in time, with good grace, and although they never had a conventional marriage, Philippe never asked for a divorce and continued to support her in many ways until his death 40 years later.

Between her father’s death and 1911, Alexandra began building her life on her terms. She studied, attended lectures, wrote articles, and took short trips, including the occasional visit to see Philippe. She knew she wanted to go back to India and finally felt ready in August of 1911. In her previous travels, especially to Indochina with the opera company, she felt that she belonged in the east.

Once in India, she had a wide range of experiences, from garden parties and lunch with the wives of the Governor of Madras and the British Viceroy, to visiting ashrams and staying with friends in the “native quarter.” She collected information from every source for future articles. In 1912, she decided that she wanted to interview the 13th Dalai Lama. She was the first western woman granted an audience with him and he was so impressed with her knowledge of Buddhist doctrine that he encouraged her to learn the Tibetan language.

In 1910, the Dalai Lama had been granted refuge in Darjeeling in the province of Sikkim, in the Himalayan foothills. While there Alexandra also met Sidkeong Tulka, the Crown Prince of Sikkim and at his invitation traveled to Gangtok, the capital, to learn more about Tibetan Buddhism. She eventually took a small apartment in the monastery of Podang outside Gangtok, where she hired a tutor to help her with the language. She took frequent trips on foot and horseback to remote monasteries, traveling with porters for her camping gear and at first Darwasandup, her interpreter, and later Yongden, a boy who would be her traveling companion for the rest of his life.

From 1914 to 1916, Alexandra spent a winter secluded in a cave in the Himalayas and twice crossed the border illegally into Tibet. The first time to visit the Chorten Nyima monastery and the second to visit Tashilhunpo. On her return from the second visit, she was deported from India because of these crossings. By this time, she was determined to visit Lhasa, and now she knew she would have to enter through China.

Aphur Yongden c. 1933 (source)

Aphur Yongden c. 1933 (source)

Alexandra and Yongden left India and traveled through Burma, Japan, and Korea, usually staying at Buddhist monasteries, and arrived in Peking on October 31, 1917. They began their time in China by staying roughly three years at the Kumbum monastery near Lake Koko Nor. It was an unusual privilege for a woman, extended to her because of her age and her association with the Dalai Lama, but it couldn’t last indefinitely. (Yongden was a lama and could have stayed if he chose.)

When they left the monastery, they traveled to various places, even up to the Gobi desert on two occasions. Much of the area, at the time, had not been accurately mapped and knowing their ultimate destination was Lhasa, they took circuitous routes to avoid suspicion. It was dangerous. There were bandits in addition to the usual dangers women face. Alexandra carried a pistol, which she never had to use, although she did fend off an attacker with a small whip on one occasion.

Finally, they reached a small mission, north of Lichiang along the Mekong River from which they intended to approach Tibet. Saying that she was going on a short trip to collect botanicals, she dismissed her porters and took off alone with Yongden. Once away from the others, Alexandra assumed her disguise as a peasant woman. She darkened her hair and extended it with braids of yak hair, darkened her face, and put on a rough robe made of wool. They looked like a peasant woman traveling with her son, a lama journeying to Lhasa.

In the Kha Karpo mountains at Dokar Pass, Alexandra and Yongden crossed the border into Tibet. They still had hundreds of miles to go over uncharted territory. Most of the rivers and mountains they crossed didn’t appear on any map that they knew of, and in many cases had probably never been seen by westerners. The terrain was rough; the Dokar Pass itself is at an elevation over 14,000 feet and the weather at times was brutal. In order to avoid attracting attention, Alexandra only used the white tent she carried in her pack when it could blend in with the snow and help provide camouflage.

The most anticipated and tense moment came at the toll bridge at Giamdo Dzong. From here they would take the China Road to Lhasa, but first they would need a pass. Alexandra believed that the best way to learn about a people and their culture was to live among them. This trip had proven that idea true. Because Yongden was a lama, they were welcomed into the homes of many peasants and she was accepted as his mother. At the toll bridge, the same was true. Yongden went into the checkpoint to request passes, she sat on the doorstep and chanted. No one appeared to give her a second thought.

The same held true when they finally arrived at Lhasa. They arrived in February just in time for the month long celebration of the New Year. Instead of having the way cleared for her by servants as in the past, this time Alexandra was simply one of the thousands of celebrating pilgrims, and she loved it. She watched processions and tested her disguise by going to tea shops, bazaars, and having conversations with people at the inn where she stayed. Finally it was time to try for her ultimate goal, visiting the Potala Palace, the home of the Dalai Lama.

Yongden approached two Tibetan villagers and offered to show them the Potala. They gladly accepted the opportunity to have a lama accompany them, and Alexandra humbly walked behind the three men. As at the checkpoint, no one paid her any attention and she was able to feast her eyes on the Palace and the view of Lhasa from the roof. She was satisfied.

Potala Palace at Lhasa (source)

Potala Palace at Lhasa (source)

They had been in Lhasa for two months and Alexandra chose to return home via India. She wanted to make the point that the British government couldn’t prevent her from going to Lhasa. She took the precaution of stopping at Gyantze and having David Macdonald, the British Trade Agent, verify her journey. She had been gone for almost fourteen years.

Alexandra and Yongden returned to Tibet via the Soviet Union in 1937, where they circumambulated the holy mountain Amnye Machen and stayed at Tachienlu (now Kangding), so that Alexandra could read and translate more sacred literature. They returned from their final journey in 1946 and settled in Digne-les-Bains, in southeastern France. There, Yongden died in 1955 at the age of 56. Alexandra continued to study and write until close to her death on September 8, 1969, just one month before her 101st birthday. At her request, Yongden’s ashes were mixed with hers and they were scattered in the Ganges River at Varanasi.

Alexandra wrote over 30 books and numerous articles, including My Journey to Lhasa: The Classic Story of the Only Western Woman Who Succeeded in Entering the Forbidden City (1927) and Magic and Mystery in Tibet (1929), her most famous work.

Lhasa in 1938, Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 135-KA-07-089 / CC-BY-SA (source)

Lhasa in 1938, Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 135-KA-07-089 / CC-BY-SA (source)

Resources
A Mystic in Tibet – Alexandra David-Néel
On Top of the World: Five Women Explorers in Tibet by Luree Miller